Tag Archives: react

TailwindCSS 2.0

TailwindCSS 2.0 – What’s new in TailwindCSS?

We will firstly recap how it works, then dive into what’s new in TailwindCSS 2.0?

In short TailwindCSS is a great way to keep your CSS stylesheet lean over time.

What is TailwindCSS?

TailwindCSS is a utility-first CSS framework, that gives you small building blocks that you can use to build your UI components.

Instead of writing CSS in the stylesheet you are adding TailwindCSS classes directly to html elements.

This might feel weird at the start, but once you get used to it, you will feel much more productive.

Great for UI Components

<span className="bg-blue-500 text-white text-xs py-1 px-2 rounded-md mb-4 inline-block">
    Coming Soon!

bg-blue-500 will apply a predefined shade of blue to your element as background-color: #0070f3.

text-white will apply color: white.

py-1 is used to define padding-top and padding-bottom, while px-2 is used to define padding-left and padding-right.

You see how reading these classes makes sense?

Are you completely new to TailwindCSS?

TailwindCSS Playground is the best way to play around with it before you invest some time and try to set it up on your project.

I will also cover some basics of TailwindCSS in my upcoming Next.js 101.

TailwindCSS 2.0 – What’s New?

The new version of TailwindCSS has been announced in some style.

I am not a big fan of the overdramatic background music, but there are some very useful additions to the functionality.

New TailwindCSS Website

Together with the new version, TailwindCSS has also a brand new website worth checking out.

TailwindCSS 2.0 Website

It is build using Next.js and the interactive animations are done using Framer Motion.

Of course all the styling has been done using TailwindCSS.

From my behind the scenes sources: it has been build by Brad Cornes in under 2 weeks!

Now what’s new?

Updated Features in TailwindCSS 2.0

TailwindCSS 2.0 Color Scheme
  • Extended color palette – now you have move colors (22) and shades (10) to choose from
  • Extra-wide 2XL breakpoint2xl: is targeting 1536px and above
  • Default line-heights per font-size – now every font-size has its own line-height specified by default
  • Extended spacing, typography, and opacity scales – now you can be more specific when defining margin, padding, font-size, or opacity
  • @apply@apply now works with anything, hover: did not work in the previous version
  • Group-hover and focus-within are now enabled by default. This is useful if you want to highlight a whole container if a button inside of it is in focus, or change the text color of all children if you hover over a parent div container.
  • Default CSS transition – predefine your CSS transition duration and easing and then only apply one class
  • Dropped IE11 support

New Features

TailwindCSS 2.0 Dark Mode

There you have it, quite a long list of updated and new features, that I am excited to try on my projects.

You can check the official release post for more details about TailwindCSS 2.0.


Which of these new or updated features are you most excited about? Or are you completely new to TailwindCSS? Let me know in the comments.

If you want to learn more about TailwindCSS, don’t forget to signup to Next.js 101.

How to speed up your front-end development workflow with Hygen.io

I work on a lot of Next.js and React projects, and especially in the initial phase of each project, I have to create a lot of files for each component.

Your typical React project could include Styled Components for CSS, Storybook for a design system, and Jest for tests.

If you want to create a new Header component, you have to manually create a folder /src/components/Header and then the following files:

  • create a component file – Header.js
  • create a stylesheet – Header.styles.js
  • create a storybook story – Header.stories.js
  • create a test file – Header.test.js

Then inside of each file you probably use some React code snippets for VSCode to quickly create a functional component or the necessary content for each file.

In this article, I will show you how you can speed up this process with Hygen.io.

If you want to save some time and speed up your front-end development workflow, keep reading.

This guide is useful for any framework or programming language and is not React or Next.js specific.

Are you new to React? Learn React from scratch in React 101.

Duplicate components

Duplicating components is another way how to quickly create all of these files, but quite often involves:

  • deleting previous code inside of each file
  • fixing import statements (VSCode helps with that)
  • other clean up

And your app might be temporarily broken until you tidy everything up.

What we want is to run one command to generate all files and their content too!

What is Hygen?

Hygen is a scalable code generator that saves you time, simple as that.

Once you set it up, you will be able to:

  • generate multiple files
  • generate the content of each file based on a template
  • inject any code inside of any file

The injecting part is useful if you are using index files (barel) to simplify your import statements.

We will install Hygen to do all of this for us.

How to install Hygen?

You can install Hygen globally or use npx to execute it without installing it.

// install hygen
npm i -g hygen
npx hygen ...

Firstly initiate Hygen in your current project directory.

// initiate hygen
hygen init self

This adds _templates folder in the root of your project with a generator inside of it.

Now we can create our generator and call it component.

// create new generator
hygen generator new component

To run the component generator is simple:

// run custom generator
hygen component new

This would try to generate files based on all templates in the /_templates/component/new folder.

If we run this new component generator, Hygen would create a new file in /app/hello.js, with the hello constant and console log inside of it.

Custom templates for new React component

Modify it to create a new Header component.

You can modify the filename from hello.ejs.t to index.ejs.t, it does not really matter.

And change the content of the template to this:

to: src/components/<%= name %>/<%= name %>.js
import React from 'react'

export const <%= name %> = ({ children }) => (
  <div className="<%= h.changeCase.paramCase(name) %>">{children}</div>

Of course, you can include any React component snippet that you wish.

This template that would generate Header.js like this:

// /src/components/Header/Header.js
import React from 'react'

export const Header = ({ children }) => (
  <div className="header">{children}</div>

The top part of the template includes metadata. Here is a list of all the Frontmatter properties, such as where to create the new file.

The bottom part contains the body of the template using EJS.

Whatever your naming convention is, run the generator to create the files with the correct name, eg. header or Header.

// generate new Header component
hygen component new Header

// run in a test mode
hygen component new Header --dry

// Header is the name variable inside of the template
<%= name %>

Do you see how everything is transformed based on the name (Header) of the component? That is the beauty of setting up these templates based on your project.

It is great to dynamically generate one file, but by generating multiple files you are really speeding up your front-end development workflow.

Generate multiple files

Depending on the configuration of your project, you might need to create multiple other files, not just the component folder and the js file.

For each file that you need to generate, include a new template file in _templates/component/new and name it whatever you like.

Here is an example of styled components.

// /_templates/component/new/styles.ejs.t
to: src/components/<%= name %>/<%= name %>.styles.js
import styled from 'styled-components'

export const <%= name %>Wrapper = styled.div`

Here is an example of a story for storybook.

// /_templates/component/new/story.ejs.t
to: src/components/<%= name %>/<%= name %>.stories.tsx
import React from 'react';
import { Meta, Story } from "@storybook/react/types-6-0";
import <%= name %>, { <%= name %>Props } from './<%= name %>';

export default {
    title: 'Components/<%= name %>',
    component: <%= name %>,
} as Meta;

const Template: Story<<%= name %>Props> = (args) => <<%= name %> {...args} />;

export const Primary = Template.bind({});
Primary.args = {};

Hygen will take all the templates in the /new folder, and generate the related files.

Pretty cool, huh?

Inject export into index.js

It is useful to create index.js in the components folder to simplify your import statements.

Here is how you can use Hygen to inject a line into it:

inject: true
to: src/components/index.js
skip_if: components/<%= name %>
append: true
export { default as <%= name %> } from "./<%= name %>/<%= name %>";

inject will add the content of the template to the specified file, and it will skip if the component is already there.

You can choose whether to append or prepend the new content.

Refer to the full documentation on injection to fully customise Hygen to your needs.

Variables and Helper functions

Sometimes you need to transform the name of the component to uppercase, lowercase, camelCase, and for that, there is a lot of helper functions that you can use.

Refer to the official documentation for Hygen.io.

The benefits

Apart from speeding up your front-end development workflow, you can also include these templates in the project source code for other team members to use.

  • everyone saves time
  • consistent project structure
  • easier onboarding


Setting up Hygen.io does not take more than 5 to 10 minutes and can save you valuable time in the long run.

How do you generate new files on your React or Next.js project?

Let me know in the comments. I am curious.

React and GreenSock Tutorial

React and Greensock Tutorial for Beginners

This React and Greensock Tutorial is focusing mainly on the basics of targeting elements and using React Hooks with GreenSock.

If you have been following my blog and YouTube channel for a while, you know that I enjoy using React and GreenSock.

They are both very powerful libraries with elegant APIs.

As more and more websites are build using React, it’s important to know how to use GreenSock in the React world.

What will you learn:

Baby steps I know, but lets learn how to walk before you try to run.

If you prefer learning by watching videos, checkout React + GreenSock 101.

View Demo →Download Files ↓

1. How to include GSAP in your React Project

React and Greensock Tutorial for Beginners

I am assuming you already know how to spin up a brand new React project using the Create React App.

npx create-react-app gsap-app
cd gsap-app

Now we can install GreenSock through npm and start the app.

npm i gsap
npm start

Cool, GSAP is installed lets import it to our App component.

import React from 'react';
import { gsap } from "gsap";

const App = () => {
    return (
        <div className="App">
            <header className="App-header">
                <img src={logo} className="App-logo" alt="logo" />

2. How to target elements using refs

Firstly we need to get access to the element that we want to animate.

We can use useRef because our App component is a functional component.

import React, { useRef } from 'react';
import { gsap } from "gsap";

const App = () => {
    const headerRef = useRef(null);

    return (
        <div className="App">
            <header ref={headerRef} className="App-header">
                <img src={logo} className="App-logo" alt="logo" />

We are storing a reference to our header element in the headerRef variable.

You can read more about React Refs in the official documentation.

3. How to animate React ref using GSAP

With our header “selected”, we can create a tween that will play when the component mounts.

import React, { useRef, useEffect } from 'react';

const App = () => {

    useEffect(() => {
        gsap.from(headerRef.current, {
            autoAlpha: 0, 
            ease: 'none',
            delay: 1

    }, []);


Firstly we need to import useEffect and create our tween inside of it.

The empty array as a dependency of this effect will make sure that our tween runs only on the initial mount of this component.

If you are new to React Hooks you can check my free online course React 101.

The target for our .fromTo tween is headerRef.current that is how we can access the underlying DOM element.

Ok, now we have our header fading in with a slight delay, but how do we animate when the state of our component changes?

4. How to animate when React state changes

React and GreenSock Tutorial

Lets create a button that will change the background color of the header.

But we could that with css class, right? Off course we could, but I thought you are here to learn React + Greensock.

import React, { useRef, useEffect, useState } from 'react';

const App = () => {
    const [background, setBackground] = useState('#5a7d95');

    const toggleBackground = () => {
        const color = background !== '#5a7d95' ? '#5a7d95' : '#1b4943';

    useEffect(() => {

        gsap.to(headerRef.current, { 
            backgroundColor: background, 
            duration: 1,  
            ease: 'none' 

    }, [background]);

    return (
        <div className="App">
            <button onClick={() => toggleBackground()}>Change background</button>

We import useState, set the default color and create a function toggleBackground that will toggle the background color between light and dark.

Then inside of a new useEffect that only listens to the background color change, we are using GreenSock’s .to tween to animate the background-color to the right value.

Please excuse my non-creative animations today, I am trying to keep the example as simple as possible.

5. How to create an array of refs

React and GreenSock Tutorial

ScrollTrigger is the cool plugin from GreenSock that lets you trigger animations as the user scrolls through your page.

Let have a look how to include ScrollTrigger in your React project and fade in a few section.

import React, { useRef, useEffect, useState } from 'react';
import { ScrollTrigger } from 'gsap/ScrollTrigger';

const sections = [
    title: 'Title 1', 
    subtitle: 'Subtitle 1'
    title: 'Title 2', 
    subtitle: 'Subtitle 2'
    title: 'Title 3', 
    subtitle: 'Subtitle 3'

We import ScrollTrigger and then register the plugin to make sure it survives the code tree shaking.

For this demo we are hardcoding some content in the sections array.

const App = () => {


    const revealRefs = useRef([]);
    revealRefs.current = [];

    const addToRefs = el => {
        if (el &amp;&amp; !revealRefs.current.includes(el)) {

    return (
        <div className="App">
                sections.map(({title, subtitle}) => (
                    <div className="App-section" key={title} ref={addToRefs}>

Because we want to access multiple sections and trigger them individually, we need to create an array of refs revealRefs.

As you know from the above header example we get access to the underlying DOM elements in the .current property.

That is why we need to create a function addToRefs and add all our references to the sections to the revealRefs.current array.

6. How to use ScrollTrigger with React

Ok, great. We have access to all sections. Now lets loop over them and create new GSAP tween with scrollTrigger.

useEffect(() => {


    revealRefs.current.forEach((el, index) => {
        gsap.fromTo(el, {
            autoAlpha: 0
        }, {
            duration: 1, 
            autoAlpha: 1,
            ease: 'none',
            scrollTrigger: {
                id: `section-${index+1}`,
                trigger: el,
                start: 'top center+=100',
                toggleActions: 'play none none reverse'


}, []);

We are looping over the revealRefs.current array and creating a simple .fromTo tween.

Each sections fades in when top of it is 100 pixels from the center of the viewport.

Again, today I could not think of a more creative way than just simply fading in a bunch of dummy sections.

React and GreenSock Tutorial Demo

View Demo →Download Files ↓

Do you want to learn more about React or GreenSock? Check out my free online courses React 101 and GreenSock 101.


Quite a long tutorial, but I hope that this guide will help you with implementing GreenSock in your React projects.

Do you have any questions related to GSAP and React? Let me know in the comments.

React + GSAP Workshop

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React Hooks Tutorial for Beginners

React Hooks Tutorial for Beginners

Are you new to React Hooks or would you like to know how to use GreenSock with React?

Then you should definitely understand what React Hooks are and how to use them.

In this React Hooks tutorial will learn:

What are React Hooks?

In short React Hooks let you use state and side effects in a functional components, something what was not possible before.

Before React Hooks were introduced to the world, this would be your workflow:

  1. create a functional (stateless) component
  2. realise that you need to manage an internal state of this component
  3. rewrite this component into a class component
  4. happily manage components state

Now with React Hooks it looks much more streamlined:

  1. create a functional component
  2. happily manage components state

React Hooks let you manage the state and react to state changes in functional components.

You can read more about React Hooks from the official documentation.

Now lets explore the most common state management use cases in React components.

How to manage state with React Hooks?

Imagine that we have a simple React component that needs to be either collapsed or expanded.

import React from 'react';

const Collapsible = () => {
    return (
        <div className="isExpanded">
            <h1>Item title</h1>

We would need to rewrite this into a class component if there were no React Hooks.

Luckily we have useState React Hook.

import React, { useState } from 'react';

const Collapsible = () => {

    const [state, setState] = useState(false);

    return (
        <div className={state ? 'isExpanded' : null}>
            <h1>Item title</h1>

We are importing useState from React and then creating a default state with the value of false.

Then we have access to the state variable and can render a css class when required.

If we wanted our component to be expanded by default we would set it to true by default.

How to use useState React Hook

state and setState names are customisable names, you could call them whatever you like. color, setColor or user, setUser would do the same thing.

You get the point of sticking to a clear naming here.

state is the name of the stored variable and setState is a function that updates the value of this variable.

To change the value we could add onClick event to the h1 and toggle the value to the opposite true or false.

import React, { useState } from 'react';

const Collapsible = () => {

    const [state, setState] = useState(false);

    return (
        <div className={state ? 'isExpanded' : null}>
            <h1 onClick={() => setState(!state)}>Item title</h1>

Now we are managing the internal state of our component using the useState React Hook.

You are not limited to a single value for your state, you can store objects, arrays or even nested objects.

Here is an example of a property object being stored in the state.

const [property, setProperty] = useState({
    name: 'Hotel Heaven',
    id: 'hh123',
    location: 'Collins Street'

How to fetch data with React Hooks?

Another React Hook that you will need to master is useEffect().

It hooks into your React component in the same way as componentDidMount, componentDidUpdate, and componentWillUnmount used to.

Here is an example component that fetches Top board games from Board Game Geek.

import React, { useState, useEffect } from 'react';

const TopGames = () => {

    const [games, setGames] = useState([]);

    useEffect(() => {
            .then(response => response.json())
            .then(data => setGames(data));

    return (
                games.map(game => <p>{game.title}</p>)

We are importing useEffect React hook and then inside of it we are:

  • fetching data from an external API and
  • saving the response into a local state variable called games

The problem with the above code is that it would create an infinite loop!

The component mounts, we fetch data, the state gets updated, the components updates, we fetch data…and this continues.

By default useEffect() runs on the first render and on every update.

How to fix the infinite loop inside of useEffect

To make the fetch call only once, we need to supply an empty array as the second parameter.

useEffect(() => {
        .then(response => response.json())
        .then(data => setGames(data));
}, []);

This empty array tells React to run the function inside of it only after the first render, not on update.

In another example we could include a searchTerm dependency. This would make sure that the fetch call only happens when the searchTerm variable is updated.

useEffect(() => {
        .then(response => response.json())
        .then(data => setGames(data));
}, [searchTerm]);

searchTerm is now a dependency for this side effect and unless searchTerm is updated, the fetch call would not run.

How to use useEffect React Hook

We have mentioned mount and update, but where is the componentWillUnmount()?

If your effect returns a function, it will be executed when it is a time for the component to be unmounted.

useEffect(() => {
    // do something here first
    // then console.log when unmouting
    return (() => {console.log('unmounting now')})
}, []);

This will simply console.log every-time this component gets removed from the DOM.


I hope that this article clarified a lot of your questions about React Hooks.

They are a great addition to the React API, make your code more readable and reusable.

I am currently re-recording my React 101 to include React Hooks, join me there to learn more.

Are you struggling with anything related to React Hooks? Have you tried to use GreenSock with React? Let me know in the comments.

GreenSock Snippets for VSCode

GreenSock Snippets for VSCode

Greensock Snippets for VSCode are now available for you to instal.

If you are like me, you want to have VSCode snippets extension for every language that you use.

This saves you time typing, speeds up your workflow and prevents you from making unnecessary syntax errors.

If you are keen on GreenSock Animation Platform you can now enjoy brand new GreenSock Snippets for VSCode.

What you will get

GreenSock Snippets for VSCode

Autocompletion for .to, .from, .fromTo, .set, import and timeline syntax.

Install GSAP Snippets

Let me know in the comments if I have missed some other snippets that should be also included.

The source code is on Github, feel free to contribute to it

Git merge conflict tutorial

Git merge conflict tutorial

Are Git conflicts your biggest nightmare? Do you freak out when you get a conflict?

I promise that at the end of this Git merge conflict tutorial you will be resolving conflicts without any headaches.

To simplify the merging explanations I will be referring to my-branch and his-branch, but you can substitute them for yours.

What you will learn:

How does Git merge conflict happen?

The merge conflicts happen when someone else edits the same lines of code in his branch as you edit in your branch.

In our example we have colors.txt file in the master branch and both of the other branches have a commit that has changed this file.

// colors.txt

// in master, you have both created a branch from here

// commit in your branch

// commit in his branch

Do you see how the same file has a different content in both branches and the same line modified?

This would cause a merge conflict.

1. Clean table

Firstly commit or stash all of your current changes, your branch needs to be “clean” before merging.

Also if you haven’t already, switch to his-branch and pull his latest changes.

// in your branch
// commit or stash changes and switch to his branch
git commit -a -m "some message"
git stash
git checkout his-branch

// in his branch
// pull his changes and switch back to yours branch
git pull
git checkout -

Git clean branch

If you run git status you should see nothing to commit, working tree clean.

Are you new to Git? Checkout also this Git branches tutorial.

2. Git Merge

Now you are ready to merge his branch.

// in your branch
git merge his-branch

This will try to merge all his changes into your branch.

Because you have both modified colors.txt on the same line, you have to resolve this a merge conflict manually.

Git merge conflict

The green block shows your changes and calls them Current change.

The blue block shows his changes in his branch and calls them Incoming changes.

Aborting merge conflicts

If you don’t feel comfortable resolving the conflict you can always abort the merge process.

// in your branch
git merge --abort

This will return you to the state of your repo before you have started the merge process.

3. Resolving Git merge conflict

Resolve Git conflicts options

To resolve the conflict we have 3 options:

  1. Accept current change
  2. Accept incoming change
  3. Accept both changes
// resolved colors.txt

// Accept current change

// Accept incoming change

// Accept both changes

This seems to be straight forward on our simple example, but I know it can be overwhelming to look at especially if your merge conflict involves big blocks of code.

One thing that helped me with merge conflicts is to use DIFF3. More on that later.

4. Commit resolved conflict

Based on your scenario pick one of the options above for every conflict and save the file.

If you have more conflicted files you will need to open them and resolve them too.

Once you have resolved all conflicts in all files you will need to stage them and commit.

// stage all files
git add . 
// commit
git commit -m "merged his-branch"

// shorter version of the above
git commit -a -m "merged his-branch"

If everything went well you should see a new commit made on your branch, your working tree clean and the merge process completed.

Git conflict resolved

An easier way to look at merge conflicts

To make it easier to resolve merge conflicts I prefer to use the DIFF3 view.

Git merge diff3

When you enable diff3 you will see a 3 way view.

  • the original version – merged common ancestor
  • current change
  • incoming change

Yellow was the original color, I have changed it to green and he has changed it to white.

To enable Diff3 you need to add it to your Git config.

git config merge.conflictstyle diff3

To find out more about Git config checkout out this Git config tutorial.


Resolving Git conflicts can be very frustrating and stressful situation, but hopefully this Git tutorial gave you a lot more confidence to resolve conflicts in Git.

Do you have any tips or tricks when it comes to resolving Git conflicts? Let me know in the comments.

Git config tutorial

Git Config Tutorial

Have you ever wanted to change the default commit message in Git config?

In this Git config tutorial you will learn:

If you are completely new to Git checkout out the Git Tutorial for Beginners or my complete Git tutorials playlist on Youtube.

Where do you find the Git config files?

The following Git config files locations are Mac specific.

System vs Global vs Local Git config

Before we get to the locations, I just want to clarify that there are 3 different scopes for Git config.

System Git config controls settings for all users and all repositories on your computer.

Global Git config controls settings for the currently logged in user and all his repositories.

Local Git config controls settings for a specific repository.

These 3 config files are executed in a cascading order. First the system, then global and finally the local.

That means that your local Git config will always overwrite settings set in the Global or System configs.

Git config tutorial

// System

// Global

// Local

In general you most likely want to edit the Global settings and occasionally set some more specific configuration for a single repositories.

Your username and email should be the same for all your repos, that is why it is stored in the Global config.

How do you view your Git config settings?

git config --list
git config --list --system
git config --list --global
git config --list --local

If you don’t specify which of the configs you would like to see, you will get all 3 configs merged into the output in your console.

To edit any of the files use the --edit flag or open the file in a text editor.

How to add or delete a record from Git config?

The following commands would add or remove your name and email from the Global config.

// to add
git config --global user.name "Your Name"
git config --global user.email "[email protected]"

// to remove
git config --global --unset user.name
git config --global --unset user.email

If you want to read a specific record from Git config use: git config user.name.

How to create a custom Git commit message?

Sometimes it is useful to create a template for your commit messages. This keeps your commits consistent.

To create custom Git commit message firstly create a text file containing your message.

// example from the official Git documentation
Subject line (try to keep under 50 characters)

Multi-line description of commit,
feel free to be detailed.

[Ticket: X]

Save this file as .gitmessage in your user directory eg. ~/.gitmessage.

Then update the global config to point to the right location.

git config --global commit.template ~/.gitmessage.txt

Now you should see your own custom message when you make a new commit.

Git config tutorial

How to use Git alias?

Git alias is another setting saved in the Git config file. It lets you execute longer Git commands by predefined shortcut.

git config --global alias.last "log -1 HEAD"

If you add the above alias to your Git config you can use git last to access the log of your last commit.

The possibilities are endless.

Have you enjoyed this Git tutorial? You might also like


There is much more to Git config, but hopefully this article made it clear how you can configure your own Git environment.

Let me know in the comments what are your own Git tips and tricks.